Featured Product
This Week in Quality Digest Live
Quality Insider Features
Jennifer V. Miller
Coaching is an investment you must make if you want to rise to greater heights yourself
Annette Franz
Sharing roles in CX can provide dividends for both customer and proprietor
Yoav Kutner
Let salespeople spend more time on customer service, market research, and competitor analysis
Nicholas Wyman
As the pandemic continues to affect millions of jobs, getting people into apprenticeships has never been more vital
Bruce Hamilton
A story of teacher and student

More Features

Quality Insider News
Designed for precise measurement of form, featuring new levels of flexibility and speed
Rent with flexibility: ASM Factory Equipment Center
Precision optical instrument helps ventilator maker increase specialty valve production in response to shortage
Single- and three-axis shop-floor dimensional measuring machines for industrial manufacturers
Interfacial launches highly filled, proprietary polymer masterbatches
Allows team to focus on quality control in dimensional measurements and overall machining process
Provides synchronization, compliance, traceability, and transparency within processes
Contactless sensors measure rotating shafts in industrial benchtop and test and measurement applications

More News

Donald J. Wheeler

Quality Insider

What They Forgot to Tell You About the Normal Distribution

How the normal distribution has maximum uncertainty

Published: Tuesday, September 4, 2012 - 15:03

There are two key aspects of the normal distribution that make it the central probability model in statistics. However, students seldom hear about these important aspects, and as a result they end up making many unnecessary mistakes. Read on to learn what it means when we say the normal distribution has maximum uncertainty.

The normal distribution has long been known to be the distribution with maximum entropy, but like many things in statistics, this mathematical fact does not translate into understandable properties. The concept of entropy is a measure of uncertainty for a probability model that comes from information theory (those who are interested can find the definition of continuous entropy on Wikipedia). Therefore, maximum entropy is equivalent to maximum uncertainty. But just what does this mean?

In order to answer this question I began to look at various aspects of entropy. As I worked with different probability models I noticed a universal hinge point where the entropy integrands would tend to converge and cross. As I dug more deeply into the nature of this hinge point I discovered a remarkable characteristic of the normal distribution that can be stated very simply:
The middle 91 percent of the normal distribution is more spread out
than the middle 91 percent of virtually all other unimodal probability models.

Specifically, the middle 91.1 percent of the normal distribution is defined by the interval:
[ mean ± 1.70 standard deviations ]

Virtually all other mound-shaped probability models will have more than 91.1 percent within this interval. In addition, those J-shaped models that are useful for fitting J-shaped data sets will also have more than 91.1 percent in the interval defined above. To illustrate these points, figures 1 and 2 show the central intervals needed to cover 91.1 percent of nine different probability models. To facilitate comparisons the distributions are shown in their standardized form, where the mean is always zero and the standard deviation (std. dev.) is always 1.00.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/w7dduYNtoosznCNF2mUtBKefPSLvr1PPQuoPze_ZOt5ns0ocH5CyaWSXIDshjqBgLsKivddh8DWDIbXa8sLS2O8--Ms-T97iaMjpxfrKlLj0p5KEjPY
Figure 1: Central intervals needed to cover 91.1 percent for five distributions

For the student’s t-distribution with 6 degrees of freedom, the middle 0.9111 is contained in the interval [ 0.0 ± 1.656 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. Since the standard deviation here is the square root of 1.5, this interval translates into 0.00 ± 2.028 for the usual form of this probability model.

For the lognormal distribution shown in figure 1, the middle 0.9106 is contained in the interval [ 0.0 ± 1.62 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. In the usual form of this lognormal distribution, the central interval above corresponds to the interval [ 0.6073, 1.4561 ].

For the standardized uniform distribution the middle 0.9111 is contained in the interval
[ 0.0 ± 1.578 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval.

For the standardized triangular distribution the middle 0.9106 is contained in the interval
[ 0.0 ± 1.56 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval.

Figure 1 includes both so-called “heavy tailed” (leptokurtic) and “light tailed” (platykurtic) distributions. Here we see that both the leptokurtic and the platykurtic distributions have their middle 91-percent more concentrated than the normal distribution. In figure 2 we look at leptokurtic distributions having kurtosis values of 6.00, 8,90, 9.00, and 113.9 respectively.

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/cA0ZqiwzVQwfjIndPsjmw5GYKRiu8IdUtJUNLDzDkwf_5qapwkZn4SbWP-h9g5_N0CiN3CJHU55-cVexs6Aw_QS-IP--S2oJMpLHnHmzsSVMgag7gDM
Figure 2: 91.1 percent central intervals for four heavy-tailed distributions

For the chi-square distribution with 4 degrees of freedom the middle 0.9111 is contained in the interval [ 0.0 ± 1.44 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. In the usual form for this distribution this interval is [ 0.000, 8.073 ].

For the first lognormal distribution shown in figure 2, the middle 0.9108 is contained in the interval [ 0 ± 1.42 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. In the usual form of this lognormal distribution, the central interval shown corresponds to the interval [ 0.2756, 1.9907 ].

For the standardized exponential distribution the middle 0.9111 is contained within the interval [ 0.0 ± 1.42 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. In the usual form for this distribution with mean = 1 the central interval above corresponds to the interval [ 0.000, 2.420 ].

For the second lognormal distribution shown in figure 2, the middle 0.9113 is contained in the interval [ 0 ± 1.02 std. dev. ] which is shorter than the normal interval. In the usual form of this distribution, the central interval shown corresponds to the interval [ 0.000, 3.853 ].

We will look at a wider selection of probability models later, but this should suffice to illustrate the earlier assertion. The middle 91 percent of the normal distribution is more spread out than the middle 91 percent of other probability models.

Tail-area probabilities

Looking at this in terms of tail-area probabilities, the normal distribution will have 8.9 percent of its area outside the interval [ mean ± 1.70 std. dev. ]. Virtually all other unimodal probability models will have less than 8.9 percent outside this interval.
The outer 9 percent of a normal distribution is further from the mean
than the outer 9 percent of virtually all other unimodal probability models.

It is customary to refer to the “tails” of a probability model as those regions that are outside the interval defined by [ mean ± 1.00 std. dev. ]. However, if we define the “outer tails” to be those regions that are outside [ mean ± 1.70 std. dev. ], then we can say that the normal distribution has outer tails that are heavier than those of virtually all other unimodal probability models.

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/a4X2AKqLsJJmyGyImNCaJqAFdsBy7wb_GF48tOyca83zBO9RxacfI3HMBIhLCt1xEncgYrDrlaNR65xg4G0LlhiIK-QvuGADs5hvM9KOntnJLCd-sJI
Figure 3: Outer tail areas for five standardized distributions

The student’s t-distribution with 6 degrees of freedom has an outer tail area of 8.25 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. The lognormal distribution in figure 3 has an outer tail area of 7.57 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. The uniform distribution has an outer tail area of 1.85 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. The triangular distribution has an outer tail area of 7.07 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution.

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/4V78MYTSMmFKEJ_nPXoeAzOEpbwuVTXiC2nM08PcuL-PvBOwKdtvGA4Ko44qRiuds03KyVn6JF9vu1fMqWmqwCQx3_sPiXSEW6IsLCH-S4RY3RubRnQ
Figure 4: Outer tail areas for four heavy-tailed distributions

The chi-square distribution with 4 degrees of freedom has an outer tail area of 6.61 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. The first lognormal distribution in figure 4 has an outer tail area of 6.18 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. The exponential distribution has an outer tail area of 6.72 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution. And the last lognormal distribution has an outer tail area of 4.73 percent, which is less than that of the normal distribution.

While it may be no surprise that the outer tails of a normal are heavier than those of a uniform distribution or a triangular distribution, it is a surprise that the outer tails of a normal are heavier than those of the six heavy-tailed distributions shown in figures 3 and 4. This is contrary to everything we teach. It is contrary to how we think. It is contrary to how we talk. Yet this fact of life regarding probability models is not a matter of opinion. It can be verified by anyone who is willing and capable of doing the computations.

Thus, the normal distribution is the distribution of maximum uncertainty. It has the most diffuse middle 91 percent, and its outer tails are heavier than those of virtually any other mound-shaped or useful J-shaped distribution. (This represents a paradigm shift for most of us, including this author. So, if you are not feeling dizzy yet, you just don’t understand what you have just read.) Referring to distributions with a large kurtosis as heavy-tailed distributions is both misleading and inappropriate. As will be shown, most distributions have light outer tails relative to the normal distribution!

Further comparisons

While the eight non-normal distributions shown above are illustrative, they hardly constitute a rigorous argument that the normal distribution has outer tails that are as heavy as possible. For those who seek a more thorough explanation, I offer the following.

Figure 5 shows how the outer tail areas of the family of student’s t-distributions compare to the outer tail area of the normal distribution. In the usual way of drawing these distributions it is the models having 3 through 10 degrees of freedom that appear to be heavy tailed. However, as the degrees of freedom increase from 3 to 30, the outer tail areas increase toward the normal value from below.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/7P83y3NeLotBaTuNoRLJVGo4kPMSzKkbNBjFDizzJKcJq3TaTkTmdwctyoctL0EY7ljaXz9PRw9dULtMWGvkhL0RBB9G6fwliFe_dNyJ5SKvejIcNps
Figure 5: Outer tail areas for student’s t-distributions

Figure 6 shows how the outer tail areas of the family of chi-square distributions compare to the outer tail area of the normal distribution. Once again, it is those models with the small number of degrees of freedom that are commonly thought of as being heavy tailed. However, as the degrees of freedom increase from 1 to 60 the outer tail areas start off small and eventually increase towards the normal value from below.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/E4HO06w81PzRdjweNX9tDBXqR_gj3eVJ45J73cYCHFV9sab-pcm1H8PX0jf7gAk_p27UTI0xN-iA3gebup7qprrI-PmBOKQLZpt-ORM6C3R6DKAOCCc
Figure 6: Outer tail areas for chi-square distributions

Figure 7 shows how the outer tail areas of the family of lognormal distributions compare to the outer tail area of the normal distribution. As the standard deviation of log X increases from 0.025 to 1.000 the outer tail areas decrease.

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/K0Xu5Nql9oHq-SN09Xn1WAOiRd2dzS9xAA0LA83D56xiMpLGQ0NcEuZNUNEEXP8Mw3MWhUmjenFVcfIHeNmccH7QTVZYVFveEAo7uchAxTwkHmElQhM
Figure 7: Outer tail areas for lognormal distributions

Figure 8 shows how the outer tail areas of the family of Weibull distributions compare to the outer tail area of the normal distribution. Here the beta parameter is held constant at 1.00. As the alpha parameter increases from 1.0 to 4.5 the Weibull distribution will first approach and then recede from the normal distribution. During this period of closest approach the Weibull outer tail areas briefly exceed the normal value of 0.0891.

The Weibull distributions with heavier than normal outer tail areas have skewness values ranging from 0.05 to -0.13 and kurtosis values ranging from 2.71 to 2.77. Their outer tail areas range up to 0.0898, which exceeds the normal value by 0.0007. Since such small differences simply do not show up in practice, we have to consider these outer tail areas to be equivalent to those of the normal distribution.

https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/ZV_wYCIY2Nwr7w4iPObAW7787VH_7uURvrGaTQjGTnJ4fKMH47Y4f5Ft9nTcriuT-ejdAMqLtuop3F13KHUwrMpa0-sN5gvHMyTE259CkOTmu2Owlec
Figure 8: Outer tail areas for Weibull distributions

Thus, we find that while the outer tail area of 0.0891 for the normal distribution is not an absolute maximum, it appears to be so close to the maximum that it makes no practical difference. To further investigate the question of what models might have heavier outer tails than the normal I looked at an additional 3,266 mound-shaped and J-shaped probability models. These models are shown in figure 9 using the shape characterization plane. In the shape characterization plane each probability model is represented by a point. The coordinates for the point representing each probability model are the skewness squared (shown on the X axis) and the kurtosis (shown on the Y axis) for that model. These 3,266 models were selected to obtain uniform coverage of the regions shown in figure 9.

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/41oeGKA3GTMSsawBRyw3mq5KGdD4AbxKgOtohyH3sZALO-gNm_MYt8cwl5aScbz-yHWikQskhuyfM-3F-bGMBZsLisAZ84PYngRNFGv7GhGKMRbyUQU
Figure 9: Outer tail areas for 3,266 probability models

In figure 9 the normal distribution is located at the point [ 0.00, 3.00 ]. The family of lognormal distributions is represented by the line labeled L. The line labeled W shows the family of Weibull distributions, and the line labeled G shows the family of gamma distributions, which includes the family of chi-square distributions as a subset. The vertical black line labeled T shows the family of student’s t-distributions.

The 2,010 mound-shaped distributions shown in red consisted of 1,718 Burr distributions and 292 beta distributions. These distributions have outer tail areas that range from 0.0573 to 0.0890, and so all have lighter outer tails than a normal distribution.

The six white dots found directly above and below the normal distribution represent six mound-shaped Burr distributions that have outer tail areas of 0.0892 to 0.0898. Thus, these six mound shaped models have outer tails that are very slightly heavier than the normal. Once again, since such small differences simply do not show up in practice, we have to consider these outer tail areas to be equivalent to those of the normal distribution.

The 1250 J-shaped beta distributions shown in purple in figure 8 have outer tail areas that range from 0.0665 to 0.0816. Thus, they all have lighter outer tails than the normal distribution.

(These 1,250 beta distributions all have end points that are at least six standard deviations apart. J-shaped beta distributions that span less than six standard deviations will have a truncated upper tail and so will not provide useful models for fitting J-shaped histograms which are logically one-sided.)

Including the 164 models in figures 1 through 8 we have, at this point, considered 3,430 probability models and have found only 15 models that have very slightly heavier outer tail areas than the normal (6 Burrs and 9 Weibulls). The maximum outer tail area found was 0.0898. The normal outer tail area of 0.0891 is so close to this observed maximum that there is no practical difference between these outer tail areas.

Therefore, based on the examination of over 3,400 probability models, it is safe to say that the middle 91 percent of the normal distribution is essentially spread out to the maximum extent possible, and its outer tails are as heavy or heavier than those of any mound-shaped or useful J-shaped distribution. When choosing a probability model, you simply will not find a useful model with a central area that is more diffuse, or that has heavier outer tails, than the normal distribution. This is what it means for the normal distribution to be the distribution of maximum uncertainty.

Selecting a probability model

One of the implications of the normal distribution having maximum entropy is the following: If all you know about a distribution is the mean and the variance, then the probability model that will impose the fewest constraints upon the situation will be a normal distribution having that mean and variance.

In addition, maximum entropy also means that the use of any other probability model will require additional information beyond the mean and the variance. Any time you fit a probability model to your data you will need to have some basis for choosing the model you are using. When you choose any model other than the normal you are making a dual determination: First, that the middle 91 percent of the probability is more concentrated than in a normal, and second, that the outer tails are lighter than in a normal distribution. Such determinations will have to be based upon some sort of information. So let’s consider where such information may be found.

Can we get this information from the data? Once we have estimated the mean and the variance we have essentially obtained all of the useful information that can be had from numerical summaries of the data. As I showed in my August 2011 column, “Problems with Skewness and Kurtosis, Part Two,” the skewness and kurtosis statistics are essentially worthless. (There I showed that with 200 data, the skewness and kurtosis statistics would not differentiate between a nearly normal distribution and an exponential distribution.) So, trying to “fit a probability model” to your data using the “shape statistics” is simply going to be an exercise in fitting a model to the noise within your data. Remember, we are talking about constraining the probability model, and any such constraint must be based on knowledge rather than speculation. If you are going to speculate, you should always use a worst-case approach, and what I have just demonstrated in this paper is that the worst-case distribution is the normal distribution. So, while we may do the computations and fit a non-normal model to the data based on information from those data, such an exercise will usually be a triumph of computation over reality, and the results will be, more often than not, an example of being misled by noise.

Can we get the needed information from the histogram? Often we have a skewed histogram, but is a skewed histogram a signal that the probability model should be skewed? The most common reason for a skewed histogram is an underlying process that is changing while the data are being collected. As the process moves around, the data move with the process, and the resulting pile of data tells us nothing about what probability model to use. The more skewed the histogram, the more likely that the process is changing. Thus, until the data have been shown to display a reasonable degree of homogeneity (i.e., statistical control), any attempt to use the shape of the histogram to select a model to use will be undermined by the lack of homogeneity within the data.

“But what if I have a detectable lack of fit when I test for normality?” Every lack-of-fit test makes an implicit assumption that the data are homogeneous. A detectable lack of fit will, in most cases, be an indication of a lack of homogeneity rather than being a signal that you need something other than a normal distribution as your model.

So, if we can’t use numerical summaries, and if we can’t use the histogram or tests of fit, how can we ever determine what kind of probability model to use when fitting our data? Context will sometimes offer a clue. If the data are known to be bounded on one side and if the data tend to pile up against this boundary, then a skewed model might be appropriate. However, since any attempt to fit a probability model to your data will require estimates of parameters for the probability model, and since these estimates will only be reliable when the data are homogenous, a preliminary step in fitting a model will be to demonstrate that your data display a reasonable degree of homogeneity. And the only way to do this is to place the data on a process behavior chart. Without the use of a process behavior chart, any attempt to use context to fit a probability model to your data may be undermined by a lack of homogeneity within your data. (For an example of this see my August 2012 column, “What is Leptokurtophobia?”)

While the software may tempt you to fit a non-normal probability model to your data, information theory requires that you have more than the estimated values for the mean and variance in order to do so. You cannot get this additional information from the data, you cannot get this additional information from the histogram, and unless the data happen to be homogeneous, you cannot successfully use information obtained from the context. Without the necessary information required to constrain your probability model, your worst-case, maximum entropy choice will be a normal distribution. The middle 91 percent will be dispersed to the maximum extent possible, and the outer 9 percent will be further from the mean than the outer 9 percent of almost any other distribution.

Fitting models and statistical process control

The discussion above pertains to the all too common practice of fitting a model to the data. Since this exercise is frequently done without having first qualified the data by checking them for homogeneity, the results frequently end up being completely worthless. Moreover, any analysis that is built upon such a fitted model is likely to end up being an exercise in futility.

“But I thought we had to fit a model to our data before we could place the data on a control chart.” No, you don’t. While there are those who teach such nonsense, it is simply not true. It never was true, and it will never be true. The fitting of a probability model prior to the use of a process behavior chart is a heresy that has become popular with the rise of software. The teachers of this heresy will often claim, “We could not easily fit models before we had computers, and so we skipped this step in the past.” While the first part of this claim is true, the last part about skipping this step in the past is completely false. When people do not understand how statistical process control (SPC) works, they tend to come up with novel, yet incorrect, ideas and explanations. (These explanations are frequently like the child’s statement, “The trees make the wind blow.” While all the elements are there, they are not quite assembled correctly.)

So, let me be clear on this point which I learned from W. Edwards Deming, who learned it from Walter Shewhart, who invented the technique. There are no distributional assumptions imposed upon the data, or otherwise required, for the use of either the average and range chart or the XmR chart. In fact, a process cannot be said to be characterized by any probability model until it displays a reasonable degree of predictability. To paraphrase Shewhart, the purpose of a process behavior chart is to determine if a probability model exists. It makes no assumptions about the functional form of such a probability model.

The use of a process behavior chart is preliminary to the use of the traditional techniques of statistics, all of which assume homogeneity for the data. If your understanding of SPC differs from this, then you need to go back and study SPC more carefully using better sources.

If you have not qualified your data by putting them on a process behavior chart and finding them to display a reasonable degree of homogeneity, then any attempt to fit a model to your data is premature. And when you do try to fit a model, you will need strong evidence indeed to argue for anything more specific than a normal distribution.

Discuss

About The Author

Donald J. Wheeler’s picture

Donald J. Wheeler

Dr. Donald J. Wheeler is a Fellow of both the American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality, and is the recipient of the 2010 Deming Medal. As the author of 25 books and hundreds of articles, he is one of the leading authorities on statistical process control and applied data analysis. Find out more about Dr. Wheeler’s books at www.spcpress.com.

Dr. Wheeler welcomes your questions. You can contact him at djwheeler@spcpress.com

Comments

Tail heaviness

Hi Don,  I don't agree, and I don't believe it is generally agreeable, that you can define "tail heaviness" as "probability outside a central range." Tail heaviness is commonly thought of a the potential to generate extreme observations. A counteraxample where the probability concentration outside the central range goes to zero, yet the distribution is heavier- and heavier-tailed, in the sense of having the potential to produce extreme outliers, is given here: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/167656/fat-tail-large-kurtosis-discrete-distributions/2510884#2510884

Overwhelming evidence

I always find Don's papers a fantastic read.  His papers and excellent books should provide overwhelming evidence that Shewhart's approach was right.  Yet teaching to the contrary continues in Six Sigma courses, in a fashion that Deming described as "seeing every day the devastating effects of incompetent teaching and faulty application" (p131 Out of the Crisis).  Despite the good statistics from Don, Deming and Shewhart, the Asch Effect prevails, where almost the entire industry follows the ridiculous Six Sigma path, often even with an awareness of its fallacies.  (Solomon Asch and Conformity Studies:   http://psychology.about.com/od/classicpsychologystudies/p/conformity.htm )

T distribution

Now, I'm somewhat notorious for missing horribly obvious things, but I thought that the t distribution basically started at 1 df with egregiously heavy tails and the more degrees of freedom you add, the closer it approximates the normal distribution.  How is it that your 6 df t distribution has smaller tails than your normal distribution?  When I run the calculations for a 6 df t distribution, I get a tail area of 14.9% at plus/minus 1.656 standard deviations.  Am I missing something again?

Heavy tailed t-dists.

You might want to reread the paragraph about the t-distribution again. The units of a t-distribution are SD(X), not SD(T). For 6 d.f. the SD(T) = SQRT(1.5). Thus, 1.656 SD(T) = 2.028. This is the source of your confusion. (Also, in figure 5 I started the curve with 3 d.f. because that is what you need to have a well-defined standard deviation.) Hope this will help.

Great article!

At the risk of sounding like a teen-ager--O M G!! Fabulous article. It has really gotten me thinking about all of the stuff I learned in statistics and raised a lot of questions about the (standard) uses of other distributions. For example, should we ever use a Student's t test? Or a chi-square test? I think I know what you would say about some of them and it is pretty much a repeat of what you have said here regarding the use of process performance charts, but I would really love to see more discussions of the implications of this concept. In fact, I am now wondering if, looking at the entire field of statistics, including analysis of designed experiments-which has become such a large part of the Six Sigma methodology-we aren't making the wrong assumptions more often than not. Perhaps this is too esoteric a discussion for the Quality Digest audience, but definitely of interest to statistical practitioners everywhere. Am I completely ovethinking this, or could the implications of this totally revamp the application of statical methods?

T-tests, etc.

We need to make a distinction between fitting a distribution to the ORIGINAL DATA and using the known and established distributions that work with STATISTICS obtained from those data. Student's t-test is a very robust test that works without having to first check that the data are normally distributed. The F-ratios of ANOVA are robust when used as a test for means. The chi-square works with sums of squares of almost anything. So, the traditional techniques are built on sound theory, and they work well in practice. It is the sophistry of trying to identify a probability model for the original data that this article addresses. Hope this will help.

Postscript

This article used a split of 91 percent and 9 percent between the central portion and the outer tails of a distribution. Subsequent research shows that equally strong arguments can be made for other splits ranging from 88/12 to 92/8. Thus, if we define the cut-off for the outer tails anywhere between 1.55 sigma and 1.75 sigma we can still say that the outer tails of the normal distribution are as heavy as, or heavier than, the outer tails of any unimodal probability model.

Re the postscript

Your statement in the postscript is too strong; exceptions are easy to find. You have a kind of caveat into the original article. While I think the original caveat is too weak (there's an infinite number of exceptions, so to make some claim about relative preponderance of distributions that meet or fail the claim we'd need some probability-distribution over the space of distributions considered); that aside, it's certainly good to have noted that it's not always true, but you can't drop it in the postscript.  [It might be instructive to show some of the exceptions. Among continuous symmetric unimodal distributions, the largest proportion outside k standard deviations from the mean is 4/9(k^2). For k=1.70 that's about 15.4%; it's interesting that the normal does get up as high as it does for k in that region.]