Featured Product
This Week in Quality Digest Live
Metrology Features
Tim Mouw
Visual evaluation isn’t enough
NIST
Breakthrough could help Nobel-winning tech measure distances and timing with pinpoint precision
S. Heather Duncan
Getting the most out of X-ray computed tomography
Elizabeth Benham
They'll make a measurable difference
Mara Strenger
Intelligent packaging with smart indicators could reduce food waste

More Features

Metrology News
Complete NDT solution measures thickness loss on corroded, industrial, complex geometry
Eastern Applied Research now has ISO 17034 certification in addition to ISO/IEC 17025
Features include flexible installation and fast measurement
Approved for use in Class 1, Zone 0, and Zone 2 locations
Guidance for deploying digital twins safely and securely
New model promises high-accuracy, 360-degree spherical image capture
Laser profiling for myriad gear sizes and shapes

More News

NIST

Metrology

How Do You Ensure That a Tape Measure is Accurate?

The short answer

Published: Tuesday, August 2, 2022 - 11:03

Y
ou need to measure length accurately to do things like make a dress, build a house, survey a plot of land, or determine if the home team made a first down on the football field. These length measurements and many others are often made with the help of a measuring tape. The major companies that produce the tape measures we use in everyday life rely on waves of light as the ultimate ruler to ensure their tapes are accurate.

Some manufacturers use highly accurate reference tape measures to print their familiar hash marks on the tape. Some are printed using computer-controlled ink printers with tiny print heads to ensure the markings are laid down accurately.


A hash mark on a tape measure as seen through a microscope. Credit: NIST

Once the tapes are printed, manufacturers check random samples for accuracy. They run the tape along a flat bench, holding it tightly in place with a specific tension from a mechanism or weight. Alongside the tape is a microscope, mounted on a moving carriage. The manufacturer aims the microscope at the tape’s hash marks and moves it from one end of the tape to the other.

At one end of the bench is a laser interferometer, which can precisely measure distances along the tape. Laser interferometers work by splitting a laser beam in two. One of the beams, the reference beam, goes directly to a detector, while the other, a measuring beam, goes toward a reflector on the side of the microscope. The measuring beam bounces off the reflector and rejoins the reference beam back at the detector.


NIST’s laser interferometer system splits laser light into two beams to measure the distance traveled by a carriage moving across the tape measure. Because a laser beam spreads out as it travels, one beam goes through a periscope to prevent it from mixing with the second outgoing beam. Both beams travel back to the laser, which contains a detector (not shown) to record the signal. Credit: M. Shilling/NIST

Each laser beam is a vibrating electromagnetic wave, which consists of peaks and valleys. When two laser beams combine, they overlap and produce a bright signal if their wave peaks line up perfectly, and a dark signal if the peaks of one wave line up with the valleys of the other. The signal cycles between light and dark as the reflector moves across the tape. The system counts the number of light-dark cycles and translates this into the distance that the reflector has moved by plugging in the value of the laser light’s wavelength (one wavelength is the distance between two successive wave peaks).


Scientists at NIST use a microscope to calibrate tape measures.

As the microscope moves over the tape, manufacturers can compare the position of the hash mark on the tape with the distance reported by the interferometer. If the tape is accurate to within an acceptable tolerance, it passes the test, and the batch that it comes from can be sold. To be used for buying and selling goods, a 1.82-m (6-ft) tape should be accurate to within 0.79 mm (1/32 in.), according to NIST Handbook 44, a sourcebook for many measurement standards. Even more accurate tapes are available, such as those used for the Olympics or to measure the level of oil tanks, but they are more expensive.

At NIST, researchers periodically verify the primary physical length standards that manufacturers use to print their tapes and other length standards used in industry. Scientists in NIST’s tape-calibration laboratory can measure a meter (3.28 ft) with a standard uncertainty of plus or minus 350 nanometers (billionths of a meter). For perspective, a human hair is anywhere from approximately 17,000 to 180,000 nanometers in diameter (0.017 mm to 0.18 mm). 

The total measurement uncertainty of a typical tape is higher due to additional contributing factors, such as the need to make repeatable measurements on the tape’s many hash marks. In NIST’s tape tunnel, which is more than 60 m long (almost 200 ft), researchers can measure a tape with an accuracy of 0.1 mm, about the thickness of a sheet of paper. 

And you need all this accuracy because the world is an imperfect place and errors inevitably build up during the manufacturing process, conspiring to make the tape less accurate. Manufacturers, with guidance and help from places such as NIST, compensate for these errors as best as they can to produce tapes with the right level of accuracy for the job.

Discuss

About The Author

NIST’s picture

NIST

Founded in 1901, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a nonregulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. Headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland, NIST’s mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.