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Singularity Hub


Microsoft’s Wild New Project Puts Servers at the Bottom of the Ocean

Product placement lends depth to sustainability

Published: Tuesday, June 7, 2022 - 10:59

(Singularity Hub: Santa Clara, CA) -- Last week, a few miles off the northern coast of Scotland, a cylinder the size of a shipping container was carefully lowered to the bottom of the ocean floor. Sounds like a clever (if complex) way to bury evidence, or treasure, or something similarly mysterious.

But what’s actually inside the undersea capsule is 864 Microsoft servers. The contents themselves, then, aren’t all that enticing—but the details of this project from one of the world’s biggest tech companies are.

Project Natick, a name Microsoft says has no special significance, completed its first phase in November 2015, after a similar vessel was deployed in the Pacific off the U.S. coast. Phase one tested the concept of subsea data centers, and the company was able to operate the “lights out” data center remotely and efficiently for extended periods of time.

A lights-out data center is one that ups its efficiency and security by limiting human access—without people coming and going, lighting isn’t needed, and climate control is easier. The data centers of the future will increasingly be lights out as technologies like robotics and AI enable them to be managed remotely and autonomously.

They’ll also, apparently, be located underwater. Eight of the world’s 10 biggest cities are on or near a coastline, and according to Microsoft, half the world’s population lives near the ocean—and that’s just one reason to store data there.

Another reason is that getting a storage facility up and running (or, down and bubbling) underwater is much, much faster. Building a data center on land has typically taken about two years (though that timeframe is dropping as technology improves); Microsoft claims its deep-sea cylinders will take fewer than 90 days to go from factory ship to operation.

Project Natick shown being deployed at sea. Credit: Project Natick/Microsoft.

Equally impressive is the fact that the centers will run completely on renewable energy. The cylinder that was deployed last week is connected to the electrical grid for Scotland’s Orkney Islands, which is powered by a blend of offshore tidal generators and onshore wind and solar power. Microsoft plans to study the possibility of powering future Natick data centers directly using offshore wind or tidal energy, no grid connection needed.

Speaking of energy, Natick cylinders will use a lot less of it than their landlocked counterparts. The vast majority of electricity for data centers on land is gobbled up by their cooling process. But submersion in the northern ocean’s frigid water provides a constant natural source of cooling, which also makes the servers less likely to overheat and crash.

The odds of a crash, or any other big problem for that matter, had better be low, because the one big drawback to this mostly brilliant idea is that if anything goes wrong, getting to those servers inside that cylinder 100 feet under water is going to be one heck of a challenge. Artificial intelligence helps monitor the servers for early signs of failure; Project Natick’s website says the planned length of maintenance-free operation for its underwater data centers is five years.

To boot, the cylinders themselves are made from recycled material, and the company plans to re-recycle them at the end of their lifespan.

“We aspire to create a sustainable data center which leverages locally produced green energy, providing customers with additional options to meet their own sustainability requirements,” Microsoft states.

As more of the world’s population comes online, the need for data centers is going to skyrocket. Having a fast, green solution like this would prove remarkably useful. At less than a week in the water, though, we’ll have to wait and see if Project Natick goes as swimmingly as Microsoft is hoping it will.

The author Vanessa Bates Ramirez is a senior editor at Singularity Hub.


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Singularity Hub

Singularity Hub is committed to helping individuals and organizations better understand and apply technology to solve grand challenges and build a better future. The storytelling focuses on the implications and potential impact of technological advances for people and planet. Singularity’s call to action is to leverage technology to help create companies, change companies, and change communities.