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Donald J. Wheeler
Al Pfadt
In memory of Al Phadt, Ph.D. This article is a reprint of a paper Al and I presented several years ago. It illustrates how the interpretation and visual display of data in their context can...
    The shape parameters for a probability model are called skewness and kurtosis. While skewness at least sounds like something we might understand, kurtosis simply sounds like jargon. Here we’ll use some examples to visualize just what happens to a probability model as kurtosis increases. Then we’ll...
    Almost seven years ago, Quality Digest presented a short article by Matthew Barsalou titled “A Worksheet for Ishikawa Diagrams.” At the time, I commented concerning enhancements that provide greater granularity. Indicating that he would probably have little time to devote to such a project,...
    The computation for skewness does not fully describe everything that happens as a distribution becomes more skewed. Here we shall use some examples to visualize just what skewness does—and does not—involve. The mean for a probability model describes the balance point. The standard deviation...
    Does your use of probabilities confuse your audience? Sometimes even using numbers can be misleading. The notion of a 1-in-a-100-year flood doesn’t prevent the possibility of flooding occurring in consecutive years. This description is no more than a statistical device for explaining the likelihood...

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